New Medical Devices May Be Extremely Effective at Preventing HIV Infections

One new medical device is an intravaginal polymer ring impregnated with an antiretroviral drug, tenofovir. If successfully commercialized, this new technology that combines a medical device with a drug could have a major positive effect in preventing HIV infections and reducing HIV transmission rates in developing countries.

As the article poignantly states,

It’s often said that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has a woman’s face. The proportion of women infected with HIV has been on the rise for a decade; in sub-Saharan Africa, women constitute 60 percent of people living with disease. While preventative drugs exist, they have often proven ineffective, especially in light of financial and cultural barriers in developing nations.

The device, called a TDF-IVR (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate intravaginal ring) can be worn for up to 30 days. It delivers a constant dose of tenofovir, lower than the typical dose of the same drug taken orally. Delivery methods such as oral dosage and vaginal gels have not proven to be effective for a variety of reasons including inconvenience and cost.

The ring also has the capability to be impregnated with other drugs such as contraceptives and other antivirals to prevent non-HIV sexually transmitted infections.

Recently completed primate studies showed that the TDF-IVR was 100% effective in preventing HIV transmission in female macaque monkeys. A Phase I human clinical study is being planned for November in New York to assess safety and side effects.

The device was developed at Northwestern University with support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

I’ve been working with a group of physicians and engineers at the University of Washington to develop a new medical device for adult male circumcision. Clinical studies sponsored by the World Health Organization demonstrated that circumcision can reduce a male’s risk of contracting HIV by as much as 75% – that’s about the same as a highly effective vaccine (which of course does not yet exist for HIV). Our device, called SimpleCirc, is designed to be used in low-resource settings by non-surgeon healthcare workers.

Perhaps the commercialization of these two technologies will begin to eradicate the scourge and epidemic of HIV/AIDS that is devastating sub-Saharan Africa.

Takeaways: When tackling an intractable problem, try different packaging or delivery concepts to address the issue. In the case of the drug-eluting ring, the drug was highly effective in other using other delivery techniques but cultural and logistical challenges limited overall effectiveness when delivered orally or as a single application gel.

In the case of the circumcision device, the design includes a kit with all materials and accessories to perform the procedure and the device itself is extremely simple, almost intuitive to use. In this way, the ability to perform circumcisions can be scaled up quickly and at low cost.

Read more: Study: New Medical Device Extremely Effective at Preventing Immunodeficiency Virus | News | McCormick School of Engineering | Northwestern University.